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Patients with tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome, an ectodermal dysplasia caused by mutations in the homeodomain transcription factor DLX3, exhibit enamel hypoplasia and hypomineralization. Here we used a conditional knockout mouse model to investigate the developmental and molecular consequences of Dlx3 deletion in the dental epithelium in vivo. Dlx3 deletion in the dental epithelium resulted in the formation of chalky hypomineralized enamel in all teeth. Interestingly, transcriptomic analysis revealed that major enamel matrix proteins and proteases known to be involved in enamel secretion and maturation were not affected significantly by Dlx3 deletion in the enamel organ. In contrast, expression of several ion transporters and carbonic anhydrases known to play an important role in enamel pH regulation during maturation was significantly affected in enamel organs lacking DLX3. Most of these affected genes showed binding of DLX3 to their proximal promoter as evidenced by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis on rat enamel organ. These molecular findings were consistent with altered pH staining evidenced by disruption of characteristic pH oscillations in the enamel. Taken together, these results show that DLX3 is indispensable for the regulation of ion transporters and carbonic anhydrases during the maturation stage of amelogenesis, exerting a crucial regulatory function on pH oscillations during enamel mineralization.