Date of Award


Document Type


First Advisor

Dr. Thomas Ball

Second Advisor

Dr. Nichole Lobdell

Third Advisor

Dr. Kevin Moore


Pain is undoubtedly a universal concept; however, the way in which one experiences pain is vastly different depending on the individual. These variations are due to pain reflecting one’s identity which encompasses expansive factors including age, sex, ethnicity, coping mechanisms, and past experiences. Because pain is multidimensional, healthcare providers need to integrate a method that treat patients comprehensively. The biopsychosocial approach prioritizes extensive assessment and treatment as well as consistent communication between patient and provider. For healthcare to implement more effective and empathetic care, the biopsychosocial model needs to be integrated in more fields of medicine. This implementation begins with educating younger generations of medical professionals to look beyond pathology, and instead, at the entire person.