Marx and Technology
The revolutionary changes in digital technologies that ushered in the postdigital context originate with the industrial machinery Karl Marx and his collaborator and comrade Friedrich Engels observed and analysed in the mid to late 1800s. Their approach sees technology as neither neutral nor deterministic, but as one site of contestation and struggle among others in the overall totality of capital. The matter at hand is the class whose interests guide the production, distribution, and consumption of technologies.
Ford, D.R. (2023). Marx and Technology. In: Jandrić, P. (eds) Encyclopedia of Postdigital Science and Education. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-35469-4_31-1